Consulting and private training in management, planning and control of the organization

A new approach to planning and controlling organizational activities by experienced professors
Steps of management, planning and control

The planning and control process is one of the most important and fundamental processes in any project.

This question may be asked of planning and control experts and managers

What are the steps of planning and controlling a project, while in practice most of the steps are done,

It may be a little difficult for them to answer this question in a concise and categorized way.

Also job applicants for management, planning and control activities who participate in job interviews,

They are expected to be familiar with the project planning and control process.

The planning and control stages of the project are divided into the following categories:

Analysis and evaluation of organizational activities

1. An overview of the goals and conditions of implementation of activities:

Why should these activities be done?

What is the purpose of this project?

What achievements will we achieve for the organization by completing these activities?

Under what circumstances is this project to be carried out?

The initial answer to these simple questions is in which the spirit of doing or not doing activities is formed.

Preparation of Project Charter:

Is a document published by the project sponsor and includes major goals,

The main constraints are major requirements, macro risks, budget, scope, key stakeholders, project manager, and so on.

This document will be completed and published at the beginning of the project. (The best time to choose a project manager is when completing this document)

Phase of organization project activities:

Phase is a set of activities related to a project that completes the achievement (Deliverable).

The PMBOK guide covers five phases for each project.

Initial phase, planning, implementation, control and monitoring and closing.

In addition to this phasing, in executive operations and operation in large projects, the whole project does not reach the operation stage together.

Rather, this is done step by step and step by step. One of the reasons for this is to earn money from the completed phases and to finance it

For the completion of other phases and the gradual temporary delivery of contractors is a component.

Preparation of Activity Failure Structure (WBS):

The project manager can categorize in different ways and break it down into smaller components.

One of the reasons for this is a better and more accurate understanding of the scope of the project (Scope) and better management of its components.


Prepare a list and list of activities:

After preparing the failure structure of work and activities, we call the last level of WBS Work Package.

After that, the activity is the smallest operational component of the project, which has specific time, cost and resources to do.

Investigating the relationships and overlaps between activities:

Four types of relationships can be defined for activities and determining prerequisites and post-requirements.

Finish to Start, Start to Start, Finish to Finish and Start to Finish relationships.


Usually 90% of the relationships in a schedule are FS and 10% are FF and SS

The SF relation is also rarely used.

Drawing the network of project activities:

With the help of project planning and control software such as MSP and P6, this is done more easily.

Estimate the duration, cost and resources of the executive

Now we come to the part where we talk about the middle ground. The requirement of a good and practical program is to calculate accurate and close to reality estimates for activities.

These estimates are derived from project design drawings.

Due to the Rolling Wave Planning feature at the beginning of the project

If the design drawings are incomplete or in the initial design stage, the estimates have a high tolerance and by completing the drawings and documents, these estimates will be more accurate.

Estimating the volume of operations and resources required to carry out activities:

The workload of each activity such as excavation volumes, concreting, skeleton, etc. should be estimated and based on that, the resources required to perform the activities on time should be estimated.

Estimating the duration of activities:

Activity Duration Estimating The process of estimating the number of time periods required to complete each activity. This process is one of the most difficult aspects

Development is a schedule and should be done by those who are familiar with the nature of things.

The two most important and key inputs in the process of estimating the duration of activities are the work resources required and the capabilities of those resources. Related information and records taken from other projects or

Other databases can also be useful and effective in generating accurate estimates.

The three-point method or using the experience of previous projects is another method of estimating the duration of activities.

Estimation of direct and indirect costs of the project:

Direct project costs are costs that are reflected in project activities.

Such as the cost of executive operations machinery or the cost of component contractors.

Indirect costs cannot be allocated to one or more activities.

Such as the cost of staff salaries.

One of the tasks of the project planner is to estimate the direct and indirect costs of the project.

Preparation of detailed budget for project activities:

The budget is the amount of money that has been considered for the project and given to the project manager.

In this regard, it is necessary to prepare a cash flow chart of the project (Cash Flow).

To know how much input at different times by paying the status statement by the employer,

Or through other sources such as loans, investor capital or other means and how much money at any given time

Direct and indirect costs and our subcontractors must be paid.

Schedule project activities

The purpose of scheduling project activities is to know at what time period of the project each activity,

After which or before which or at the same time with which activity it is to be done.

Gantt charts are the most common way of presenting project schedules.

Preparation of a detailed schedule of project activities:

All activities have a specific start and end time and duration, and the sequence of all tasks is specified.


Determining working and non-working days and hours:

Or the same project calendar that should be specified, for example, whether the project is going to work 7 days a week or less.

What are the holidays and what are the working hours from?

Identify key milestones in project activities:

Milestone is a key and important event in the project or any phase. Such as project start, land delivery,

Date of prepayment or completion of the project. The history of these milestones is of great importance to any organization and project manager and other project stakeholders.


Critical path analysis of project activities:

The critical path is the longest path of the project. In other words, all activities

In this route, their total buoyancy is zero and the delay in any of the activities of this route causes a delay in the whole project.

Every project has at least one critical path.

Identifying and controlling the critical path is very important for any project manager and a planner

With the help of conventional planning and control software, it defines, identifies and analyzes it.

Investigation of unfavorable weather conditions according to the report of the Meteorological Organization for the last 20 years:

Climatic and geographical conditions of each region are different. An accurate planner with report extraction

20 years old weather conditions in the project area and taking into account this risk prepares the project.

For example, in cold provinces for winter, it is not possible to have the same planning for summer.

The number 20 years refers to Article 16 of the General Conditions of the Treaty.

آرش بیاضیان مشاور، مجری و مدرس خصوصی مدیریت، برنامه ریزی و کنترل سازمان

Investigate other issues and possible problems:

Each project has its own issues and problems that sometimes may be unique in their kind.

Therefore, according to the conditions of each project, its issues and problems should be identified, analyzed and reviewed.

Resource planning and understanding the relationship between time and cost

Resource planning, which unfortunately in our country is a bit neglected, suffices for scheduling without resources.

While the planning of resources including manpower, machinery, materials and materials, if not done, it is very unlikely that the project will be completed on time.

Resource planning and allocation:

Resources are divided into two main categories of consumption and non-consumption.

Resources are the resources consumed and completed in this project.

Such as materials. Non-consumable resources can be used after the completion of the project or at the same time in other projects.

Such as manpower and machinery and equipment. It must be specified how much each activity needs from each source.


Investigate the relationship between time and cost (what is the optimal point of time and cost?)

Reducing the duration of activity (Duration) usually requires increasing the cost of increasing work crews or increasing work shifts, and so on.

Finding the optimal point of how much to spend to get the most optimal time possible for project activities.


Preparing the final and executive plan of project activities
Preparation of final and executive plan of project activities:

After the above steps, a project schedule is prepared, which must be approved by the employer or consultant.

If the employer or consultant has a point of view, their opinion should be provided or the plan should be defended reasonably and logically.

Finally, this approved program should be considered as the basis of project ‌‌ (Baseline) project pillars.

Project executive resource planning:

Carrying out project activities is subject to the timely provision of the required resources.

Many of the delays and delays are due to the lack of resources discussed earlier.

Project implementation

Directing activities and project implementation:

Properly covered, it will withstand a great deal of adverse conditions.

By identifying the critical direction of the project and focusing on the milestones, one can play an effective role in leading the project.

Project evaluation and monitoring
Calculating the progress of activities:

The progress of activities is calculated by the Progress Measurement System.

(See the article on the subject of progress measurement system).

For physical progress, the ratio of workload to total workload is calculated.

That is, for example, if we are going to do 1,000 cubic meters of concreting and pour 500 cubic meters of concrete,

In this case, we will have 50% physical progress.

For the progress of Rials, the ratio of the cost to the estimated budget of the activity will be calculated.

Evaluation of administrative expenses spent:

This will be one of the responsibilities of the cost control unit of the project planning and control department.

Analyze how much we have budgeted for the activities according to the plan and that

How much have we spent so far and what is the difference and where will we get with this process?

Acquired Value Management Analysis (EVM) and calculation of its indicators for project managers

Shows them the exact status of the project performance.

Comparison of results with forecasts:

In the field of project control, the work done should be compared with the planned work

And analyzed its deviations and reasons so that it can be reprogrammed for the remaining tasks.

Synchronize project schedule:

The schedule for each period (usually weekly) should be updated and updated

And the delays of activities and its impact on other project activities and the end of the project are evaluated and analyzed.

How to properly update the schedule so that you can properly evaluate the performance of the project is very important.

Provide a compensation solution to compensate for delays:

If there is a delay in the project due to various reasons and the effects that this delay has on the damage to the project, including increased costs and loss of credit with the employer

And other consequences of the problems it has must be compensated for or prevented from continuing to increase.

These solutions should be with the opinions of the technical office and the executive team to be possible, not just in theory and on paper.

Preparation of management reports:

The output of the project planning and control work is reports in the form of tables, graphs and charts that, in addition to showing the current status of the project,

It helps managers make better decisions and opens the way for better activities.


Forecast the budget required to complete the project:

Estimated to Complete ETC (Estimate to Complete) is calculated in different ways

These methods are mentioned in the concepts of value management.

Help management make decisions
Assess the status of project time and cost:

Which is usually done with the help of progress charts (S Curve) as well as EVM indicators such as CPI, SPI, etc.

Accurate evaluation of project time and cost performance.


Assist management in deciding to respond appropriately:

The purpose of project planning and control is to help the project manager and other operations managers make better decisions to get the project on track.

In fact, project control plays the role of aircraft control puzzles for the pilot. If the aircraft deviates from its course or altitude, the task of those gauges is to send alarms in a timely manner

Takes charge of the pilot to correct the flight path or altitude.


The most important of these confusions in the project is the deviation of project time and cost from the baseline program, which helps the project manager to make better decisions by giving timely notice.

Arash Bayazian Sarkandi
Consulting and private training in management, planning and control of the organization
Subject: What is project planning and control?